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    1. Neuroscience

    Neural activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits of juvenile songbirds encodes performance during goal-directed learning

    Jennifer M Achiro et al.
    Activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits of juvenile songbirds reflects evaluative signals necessary for comparing self-generated behavior to a goal representation during skill learning.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural and computational processes underlying dynamic changes in self-esteem

    Geert-Jan Will et al.
    Self-esteem, the value that people ascribe to the self, is represented in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and dynamically updated when people learn how others value them.
    1. Neuroscience

    Two-photon imaging in mice shows striosomes and matrix have overlapping but differential reinforcement-related responses

    Bernard Bloem et al.
    Simultaneous 2-photon imaging of striosomes and matrix in mice shows that striosomes preferentially encode reward-predicting cues whereas both striatal compartments demonstrate reward-related activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    One-shot learning and behavioral eligibility traces in sequential decision making

    Marco P Lehmann et al.
    Human learning relies on short-term memories (eligibility traces) which provide a mechanism to reinforce sequences of actions from a single reward (one-shot).
    1. Neuroscience

    The control of tonic pain by active relief learning

    Suyi Zhang et al.
    The brain has a central cortico-striatal learning circuit that suppresses ongoing pain after injury when actively learning about things that could remove the cause of the pain.
    1. Neuroscience

    A causal role for right frontopolar cortex in directed, but not random, exploration

    Wojciech K Zajkowski et al.
    Disruption of right frontopolar cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation causes selective deficits in exploratory behavior suggesting that different strategies of exploration are implemented by different neural circuits.
    1. Neuroscience

    Motor thalamus supports striatum-driven reinforcement

    Arnaud L Lalive et al.
    While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.
    1. Neuroscience

    Behavior: The cerebellum shows its stripes

    Ashley L Holloway, Talia N Lerner
    New studies examine how the different sub-structures in the cerebellum are organized to receive information during complex behavioral tasks.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Cerebellar climbing fibers encode expected reward size

    Noga Larry et al.
    Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys reveal that cerebellar complex spikes encode future reward size when reward information is first made available, but not during reward delivery or smooth pursuit eye movement.
    1. Neuroscience

    A neural circuit mechanism for regulating vocal variability during song learning in zebra finches

    Jonathan Garst-Orozco et al.
    By demonstrating song learning-related synaptic strengthening and pruning in the vocal control circuits of songbirds, and showing how such changes can reduce the sensitivity of the circuit to ‘noisy’ inputs, a simple neural circuit mechanism for regulating motor variability during motor skill learning is identified.