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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Learning: Neural networks subtract and conquer

    Guillaume Hennequin
    Two theoretical studies reveal how networks of neurons may behave during reward-based learning.
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  1. Research Culture: A survey of new PIs in the UK

    Sophie E Acton et al.
    The challenges faced by new PIs in the UK include difficulties in recruiting PhD students, maintaining a good work-life balance and securing permanent positions.
    1. Cell Biology

    The fibronectin synergy site re-enforces cell adhesion and mediates a crosstalk between integrin classes

    Maria Benito-Jardón et al.
    The fibronectin synergy site is only required in vivo when forces exceed or αvβ3 integrin levels fall below certain thresholds.
    1. Neuroscience

    Catecholaminergic challenge uncovers distinct Pavlovian and instrumental mechanisms of motivated (in)action

    Jennifer C Swart et al.
    Motivational coupling of action to reward and inhibition to punishment is subserved by dissociable learning and choice processes, and is modulated by dopamine/noradrenaline transporter blockade.
    1. Neuroscience

    Chronic pain induces generalized enhancement of aversion

    Qiaosheng Zhang et al.
    Chronic pain distorts intensity coding in the anterior cingulate cortex to give rise to generalized anatomically nonspecific enhancement in pain aversion.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths

    Katie Abley et al.
    Models that generate tandem alignments of cell polarities are more readily compatible with the formation of PIN1 polarity patterns in plant leaf buds than the most widely accepted “up-the-gradient” model.
    1. Neuroscience

    v-SNARE transmembrane domains function as catalysts for vesicle fusion

    Madhurima Dhara et al.
    Structural flexibility of the synaptobrevin-2 transmembrane domain promotes membrane fusion.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopaminergic neurons write and update memories with cell-type-specific rules

    Yoshinori Aso, Gerald M Rubin
    Building on previous work (Aso et al., 2014a; Aso et al., 2014b), cell-type-specific drivers and optogenetics are used to control the local release of dopamine and reveal that distinct learning rules are implemented in parallel memory units.
    1. Neuroscience

    Extracting grid cell characteristics from place cell inputs using non-negative principal component analysis

    Yedidyah Dordek et al.
    Computational modeling of the brain’s navigation system reveals that place cells can drive the formation of hexagonal patterns experimentally observed in grid cells activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Retroactive modulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity by dopamine

    Zuzanna Brzosko et al.
    Dopamine, a reward signal in the brain, can retroactively convert hippocampal synaptic depression into potentiation, suggesting an elegant biological solution to the distal reward problem.