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    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A nascent polypeptide sequence modulates DnaA translation elongation in response to nutrient availability

    Michele Felletti et al.
    Specific amino acids in the N-terminus of the replication initiator protein DnaA inhibit translation elongation upon carbon starvation, illustrating that the identity of the N-terminal amino acids of a protein can modulate protein synthesis yield under changing conditions.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Mechanism for priming DNA synthesis by yeast DNA Polymerase α

    Rajika L Perera et al.
    The details of how the enzyme DNA polymerase α initiates the polymerization of nucleotides in DNA replication, a critical step in the synthesis of new chromosomal DNA, have been revealed in atomic detail.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    DNA binding polarity, dimerization, and ATPase ring remodeling in the CMG helicase of the eukaryotic replisome

    Alessandro Costa et al.
    The Mcm2-7 motor unwinds DNA using an approach distinct from that of superfamily III helicases, and accesses multiple ring configurations and assembly states during the initiation of DNA replication.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Mechanisms of opening and closing of the bacterial replicative helicase

    Jillian Chase et al.
    Analysis of the Escherichia coli DnaB helicase•bacteriophage λ helicase loader (λP) complex provides insights into helicase opening, delivery to the origin and ssDNA entry, and closing in preparation for translocation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Determination of host proteins composing the microenvironment of coronavirus replicase complexes by proximity-labeling

    Philip V'kovski et al.
    The molecular microenvironment of coronaviral replicase complexes provides functional and spatial links between conserved cellular processes and viral RNA synthesis, and highlights potential targets for the development of novel antivirals.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    pp32 and APRIL are host cell-derived regulators of influenza virus RNA synthesis from cRNA

    Kenji Sugiyama et al.
    The host-derived factors, pp32 and APRIL, interact with influenza viral RNA polymerase to support viral genomic RNA synthesis from complementary RNA.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    HIV Tat controls RNA Polymerase II and the epigenetic landscape to transcriptionally reprogram target immune cells

    Jonathan E Reeder et al.
    Tat uses unexpected regulatory mechanisms to reprogram target immune cells to promote viral replication and rewire pathways beneficial for HIV.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Structure of the active form of human origin recognition complex and its ATPase motor module

    Ante Tocilj et al.
    The human Origin Replication Complex is shaped as a shallow corkscrew in a classic AAA+ organization reminiscent of clamp loader complexes with highly controlled ATPase activity as exemplified by Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutations.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A novel DNA primase-helicase pair encoded by SCCmec elements

    Aleksandra Bebel et al.
    SCCmec genomic islands encode a novel primase-helicase pair in which priming ability is conferred upon an A-family DNA polymerase domain by a novel protein cofactor.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Genome duplication in Leishmania major relies on persistent subtelomeric DNA replication

    Jeziel Dener Damasceno et al.
    Duplication of Leishmania chromosomes combines S-phase DNA replication initiated at a single internal region with subtelomeric DNA replication detectable outside S-phase, potentially explaining genome plasticity in this important parasite.