Transsynaptic mapping of the postsynaptic connections of mushroom body output neurons reveal both divergent and convergent projections allowing for multimodal integration prior to initiation of an output response.
A domain-general structure learning mechanism, supported by anterior insula, moves beyond explicit category labels and dyadic similarity as the sole inputs to social group representations and predicts ally-choice behavior.
At distal synapses onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, synaptic plasticity is dependent on dendritically initiated sodium spikes, thus establishing a new role for voltage-gated sodium channels in the dendrites that may have important implications for how learning rules are implemented.
Computational modeling, and empirical behavioral and EEG results show that learning relies not only on comparing current events to past experience, but integrates response-based outcome predictions and confidence.
New protein labeling strategies unravel the subcellular distribution of neurotransmitter receptor subunits and voltage-gated ion channels in motion-sensing T4/T5 neurons of the Drosophila visual system.
Heterogeneous distances between vesicles and Ca2+-channels make synapses prone to short-term depression, however, Ca2+-dependent increases in the number of release-ready vesicles supports facilitation even with broadly distributed vesicle:Ca2+-channel distances.