Model-based analyses of choice behavior and fMRI activity revealed that prior preferences generate default policies, which frame the decision value signal encoded in the vmPFC, and shift vmPFC pre-choice activity so as to induce a decision bias toward default options.
Decision-makers are able to intentionally control neural excitability to strategically bias sensory evidence accumulation towards the decision bound that maximizes reward within a given ecological context.
When making decisions about funding and jobs the scientific community should recognise that most of the tools used to evaluate scientific excellence are biased in favour of established disciplines and against interdisciplinary research.
An analysis of review, promotion and tenure documents from 129 US and Canadian universities suggests institutions could better fulfill their public missions by changing how they incentivize the public dimensions of faculty work.
Publication bias, in which positive results are preferentially reported by authors and published by journals, can restrict the visibility of evidence against false claims and allow such claims to be canonized inappropriately as facts.