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    1. Neuroscience

    Opposite initialization to novel cues in dopamine signaling in ventral and posterior striatum in mice

    William Menegas et al.
    Dopamine novelty signals are localized in the posterior tail of the striatum along with general salience signals, while dopamine in the ventral striatum reliably encodes reward prediction error.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sensory prediction errors in the human midbrain signal identity violations independent of perceptual distance

    Javier A Suarez et al.
    Activity in the midbrain responds to unexpected changes in outcome identity (i.e. sensory prediction error) but does not scale with perceptual distance between expected and receipt reward.
    1. Neuroscience

    Two-photon imaging in mice shows striosomes and matrix have overlapping but differential reinforcement-related responses

    Bernard Bloem et al.
    Simultaneous 2-photon imaging of striosomes and matrix in mice shows that striosomes preferentially encode reward-predicting cues whereas both striatal compartments demonstrate reward-related activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Midbrain dopamine neurons signal aversion in a reward-context-dependent manner

    Hideyuki Matsumoto et al.
    Dopamine neurons signal value prediction errors (VPEs) integrating information about both reward and aversion, in low reward contexts, whereas VPEs in some dopamine neurons are distorted in high reward contexts.
    1. Neuroscience

    Prediction signals in the cerebellum: beyond supervised motor learning

    Court Hull
    Emerging evidence suggests a broad role for cerebellar circuits in generating and testing predictions about movement, reward, and diverse cognitive processes.
  1. Point of View: Four erroneous beliefs thwarting more trustworthy research

    Mark Yarborough et al.
    Strategies to improve public trust in biomedical research are being hindered by a scientific mindset that stifles interest in reform.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Meta-Research: Centralized scientific communities are less likely to generate replicable results

    Valentin Danchev et al.
    Analysis of data on drug-gene interactions suggests that decentralized collaboration will increase the robustness of scientific findings in biomedical research.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Meta-Research: Releasing a preprint is associated with more attention and citations for the peer-reviewed article

    Darwin Y Fu, Jacob J Hughey
    An analysis of more than 70,000 journal articles, including 5405 that were first released as a preprint on bioRxiv, shows that articles with a preprint received 49% more attention and 36% more citations than articles without one.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Point of View: Data science for the scientific life cycle

    Daphne Ezer, Kirstie Whitaker
    Each stage of the scientific life cycle stands to benefit from the introduction of data science techniques.