fMRI evidence for off-task replay predicts subsequent replanning behavior in humans, suggesting that learning from simulated experience during replay helps update past policies in reinforcement learning.
Transient suppression of activity in the macaque mediodorsal thalamus impairs adjustment of secondary reinforcer values and disrupts appropriate action selection in a reinforcer devaluation task; this profile is distinct from that of amygdala or subregions of orbitofrontal cortex.
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons and a cortex-like structure called the arcopallium form part of a circuit that enables young songbirds to compare their own song with a template stored in memory, and use any discrepancies to improve their performance.
Amphetamine reduces reward signaling by neurons in rat prefrontal cortex, but increases the stability of population dynamics, which account for animals’ increased task engagement, despite reduced reward motivation.
Two distinct subpopulations of CA1 neurons that increased or decreased their firing rate during delay were identified, suggesting that they have distinct roles in the valuation process in the hippocampus.
The rodent orbitofrontal cortex makes functionally distinct contributions to flexible behavioural control, even within a single putative orbitofrontal subregion, which has important implications for establishing homology between rodent and primate orbitofrontal cortex.
Adaptive decision-making critically depends on antiparallel flows conveying distinct information within thalamocortical circuits, highlighting directionality of functional exchanges as a neural principle potentially at play in virtually any brain circuit with reciprocal projections.