Quantitative microscopy and theory show that the size of Xenopus laevis egg extract spindles is controlled by a spatially-regulated autocatalytic growth mechanism driven by microtubule-stimulated microtubule nucleation.
Interventions in feedlots and abattoirs place selective pressure on the beef cattle resistome, which differentially impacts the public health risk of antimicrobial resistance from beef production sources.
While antimicrobial cocktails are highly effective for defence against pathogenic microbes, the innate immune response may instead employ highly specific peptidic antibiotics to combat certain natural enemies.
Different developmental stages of a venomous animal (e.g. Nematostella vectensis) with a complex life cycle produce vastly different venoms that can serve in different antagonistic interactions with other species.