Reward-related cues elicit phasic changes in activity in ventral pallidum neurons, which predict and functionally contribute to the speed of behaviors trained on the basis of act-outcome, but not stimulus-outcome, contingencies.
The rapid killing of macrophages by Mycobacterium tuberculosis aggregates, and the subsequent proliferation of the bacteria inside the dead cell, leads to a cell death cascade and explains the coupling of necrosis and pathogen growth observed in active disease.
Deposition of the exon junction complex is thought to be the missing link between pre-mRNA splicing and translation in multicellular organisms, but no evidence of such deposition has been found in Drosophila.
Oculomotor circuits are always busy planning the next eye movement, and this explains why, when a visual target appears, some eye movements toward it are produced very quickly whereas others take a long time to prepare.
A genetic approach documents that mitochondrial DNA moves from donor cells to recipient mtDNA-depleted cells in whole mitochondria and that this restores mitochondrial respiration and the capacity of the cells to form tumours.