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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Dual function of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 axis in myelination of the peripheral nervous system

    Gianluca Figlia et al.
    High PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 activity inhibits Schwann cell differentiation, while after onset of myelination, residual PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 activity promotes myelin growth.
    1. Neuroscience

    Long ascending propriospinal neurons provide flexible, context-specific control of interlimb coordination

    Amanda M Pocratsky et al.
    Conditional silencing of long ascending propriospinal neurons disrupts interlimb coordination of the fore and hindlimb pairs, but in a highly context-specific manner.
    1. Neuroscience

    Protective role of neuronal and lymphoid cannabinoid CB2 receptors in neuropathic pain

    David Cabañero et al.
    Operant drug self-administration in a mouse model of neuropathic pain reveals pain-relieving effects of a cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist that are mediated through CB2 receptors of neurons and lymphocytes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Calretinin positive neurons form an excitatory amplifier network in the spinal cord dorsal horn

    Kelly M Smith et al.
    A signal amplifier network that transmits mechanical pain is delineated through characterising an excitatory interneuron population in the spinal cord dorsal horn and defining the postsynaptic populations they regulate.
    1. Neuroscience

    Axon-dependent expression of YAP/TAZ mediates Schwann cell remyelination but not proliferation after nerve injury

    Matthew Grove et al.
    YAP and TAZ, potent concoproteins and therapeutic targets in cancer therapy, are essential for Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration.
    1. Cell Biology

    Transcriptional activator TAp63 is upregulated in muscular atrophy during ALS and induces the pro-atrophic ubiquitin ligase Trim63

    Yannick von Grabowiecki et al.
    Atrophic muscles of patients and animal models developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis show an upregulation of TAp63 that stimulates the expression of a pro-atrophic ubiquitin ligase.
    1. Neuroscience

    Somatic and vicarious pain are represented by dissociable multivariate brain patterns

    Anjali Krishnan et al.
    Understanding others' pain is grounded in cognitive rather than sensory faculties.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Addressing the ethical issues raised by synthetic human entities with embryo-like features

    John Aach et al.
    Guidelines governing research into embryos need to be updated in a way that reflects the moral status of synthetic human entities generated using the methods of synthetic biology.
  1. Philosophy of Biology: The challenges of big data biology

    Sabina Leonelli
    Understanding how data were collected and processed is an essential element of big data biology.
    1. Ecology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Emerging Technology: Concerning RNA-guided gene drives for the alteration of wild populations

    Kevin M Esvelt et al.
    Combining CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing with gene drives may enable scientists to reversibly edit the genomes of diverse wild populations, an advance that could help eliminate diseases, support sustainable agriculture, and control invasive species.