4,784 results found
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Selectively driving cholinergic fibers optically in the thalamic reticular nucleus promotes sleep

    Kun-Ming Ni et al.
    Cholinergic system play an important role in waking-to-sleep cycles and in sleep stabilization.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    More effective drugs lead to harder selective sweeps in the evolution of drug resistance in HIV-1

    Alison F Feder et al.
    The transition from bad to good treatments for HIV was accompanied by a shift from soft sweeps of many drug resistance mutations spreading simultaneously to harder sweeps of one drug resistant genotype at a time.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    An integrative genomic analysis of the Longshanks selection experiment for longer limbs in mice

    João PL Castro et al.
    Genome sequencing of mice selected for longer limbs reveals that rapid selection response is due to both discrete loci and polygenic adaptation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila

    Yoshinori Aso et al.
    Output neurons in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain encode the positive or negative survival value of stimuli, enabling insects to choose adaptive approach and avoidance behaviors through associative learning.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Predominance of cis-regulatory changes in parallel expression divergence of sticklebacks

    Jukka-Pekka Verta, Felicity C Jones
    Cis-regulation such as enhancers and promoters plays a major role in parallel gene expression divergence and has features that make it a well-poised substrate for adaptive evolution.
    1. Neuroscience

    Thalamic reticular nucleus induces fast and local modulation of arousal state

    Laura D Lewis et al.
    A neural circuit that can selectively induce sleep-like patterns in small regions of the brain demonstrates how sleep and arousal states may be controlled in local brain regions.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Synthetic single domain antibodies for the conformational trapping of membrane proteins

    Iwan Zimmermann et al.
    Synthetic single domain antibody libraries and a binder selection cascade encompassing ribosome and phage display enable the selection of conformation-specific binders against previously intractable membrane proteins within three weeks.
    1. Neuroscience

    Promoting subjective preferences in simple economic choices during nap

    Sizhi Ai et al.
    Neurocognitive processing during sleep selectively biases subjective preferences in simple economic choices when the sleeper is stimulated by covert, reward-associated cues.
    1. Neuroscience

    VTA neurons coordinate with the hippocampal reactivation of spatial experience

    Stephen N Gomperts et al.
    During quiet wakefulness but not slow wave sleep, reward modulated VTA neurons coordinate selectively with hippocampal replay sequences and are biased in their timing towards the reactivated representation of reward locations.

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