7,393 results found
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    More effective drugs lead to harder selective sweeps in the evolution of drug resistance in HIV-1

    Alison F Feder et al.
    The transition from bad to good treatments for HIV was accompanied by a shift from soft sweeps of many drug resistance mutations spreading simultaneously to harder sweeps of one drug resistant genotype at a time.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Selectively driving cholinergic fibers optically in the thalamic reticular nucleus promotes sleep

    Kun-Ming Ni et al.
    Cholinergic system play an important role in waking-to-sleep cycles and in sleep stabilization.
    1. Ecology

    Sexual selection gradients change over time in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    Jeroen NA Hoffer et al.
    The quantification of sexual selection reveals that it is important to consider the chosen time frame of measurement as well as the sexual system.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    Sculpting ion channel functional expression with engineered ubiquitin ligases

    Scott A Kanner et al.
    Engineered E3 ubiquitin ligases are utilized to elucidate mechanisms underlying ubiquitin regulation of membrane proteins, and to achieve robust post-translational functional knockdown of ion channels.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila

    Yoshinori Aso et al.
    Output neurons in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain encode the positive or negative survival value of stimuli, enabling insects to choose adaptive approach and avoidance behaviors through associative learning.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Predominance of cis-regulatory changes in parallel expression divergence of sticklebacks

    Jukka-Pekka Verta, Felicity C Jones
    Cis-regulation such as enhancers and promoters plays a major role in parallel gene expression divergence and has features that make it a well-poised substrate for adaptive evolution.
    1. Neuroscience

    Promoting subjective preferences in simple economic choices during nap

    Sizhi Ai et al.
    Neurocognitive processing during sleep selectively biases subjective preferences in simple economic choices when the sleeper is stimulated by covert, reward-associated cues.
    1. Neuroscience

    Generalizable knowledge outweighs incidental details in prefrontal ensemble code over time

    Mark D Morrissey et al.
    Neuron ensembles in the medial prefrontal cortex gradually develop codes for relevant, latent variables common across multiple experiences while – apparently independently – losing information about irrelevant, contextual variables unique to each experience.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sequential selection of economic good and action in medial frontal cortex of macaques during value-based decisions

    Xiaomo Chen, Veit Stuphorn
    Whenever monkeys are required to choose between multiple options, neural responses indicate that they first select the desired outcome and then use this information to guide their actions.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Immune genes are hotspots of shared positive selection across birds and mammals

    Allison J Shultz, Timothy B Sackton
    Pathogens, particularly viruses, target the same genes over deep evolutionary time, resulting in shared signatures of positive selection and transcriptional responses at the same genes.

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