Individual granule cells within the cerebellum-the region of the brain that coordinates movement and supports the learning of new motor skills-receive both sensory and motor input streams: an arrangement that may help the brain to use feedback to fine-tune movement.
Cerebellar Purkinje neurons use a multiplexed simple spike code combining synchrony/spike time and firing rate, with each component encoding distinct information about movements such as motion onset timing and kinematics.
The first patch-clamp recordings from single cerebellar granule cells during locomotion reveal that the entire step sequence can be predicted from both excitatory synaptic input and output spikes from a single neuron.
Brain imaging reveals frequency-dependent lateralized rhythmic finger tapping control by the auditory cortex with left-lateralized control of relative fast and right-lateralized control of relative slow rhythms.
The generation and systematic characterisation of driver lines labelling a large number of neurons in the Drosophila innate olfactory processing centre bridges electron microscopy neuronal reconstructions, circuits and behaviour.