Analysis of epidemiological data reveals that viral loads in newly HIV-1 infected individuals in Uganda have declined for two decades, and evolutionary modelling shows that attenuation of the virus explains this decline.
A subset of EC/VCs have CD4+T cells with resistance specific to R5-tropic HIV infection associated with transcriptional down-regulation of ccr5, a phenotype that appears to be heritable, across multiple generations.
Calcium-calcineurin signaling cascade drives the acquisition of both the phenotype of the most self-reactive naive CD4 T cells and their enhanced cell-intrinsic ability to commit into induced regulatory T cells upon activation.
Among children in low-resource settings, diverse enteropathogens share common, population-level antibody dynamics, which creates a new opportunity to estimate transmission through serologic surveillance.
Measuring HIV-1 DNA levels at the time of stopping antiretroviral therapy (when initiated during primary infection) predicts clinical progression and the time taken for plasma viraemia to become detectable.
A method to assess the risk of self-sustained HIV transmission in heterosexuals from phylogenetic and epidemiological data is developed and, when applied to the Swiss HIV epidemic, shows that this risk is negligibly small for Switzerland.
New mammarenaviruses have been identified from rodents in Cambodia and Thailand, and the Cardamones variant of Wēnzhōu virus has been found in Cambodian patients presenting with fever and respiratory symptoms.