A gene duplication event has permitted the functional specialization of a homeodomain transcription factor through changes in exon-intron organization and these changes have supported the evolution of a major, phylum-level morphological novelty.
The secreted sugar-binding protein galectin-8 causes osteoblasts to secrete factors that promote the differentiation of bone marrow cells into osteoclasts; targeting this protein could therefore potentially help treat diseases associated with excessive bone loss.
The transcription and splicing factor T-box3 is present in primary cilia, regulates multiple aspects of limb development, and interacts with members of the protein complex required for the stability and processing of the Gli3 transcription factor.
Calcium channel blockers accelerate aortic aneurysm and cause premature aortic rupture in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome through protein kinase C-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
Genetic studies in mice reveal the molecular and embryological mechanisms of vocal fold development and function, thereby informing our understanding of vocal communication and congenital voice defects.