The secreted sugar-binding protein galectin-8 causes osteoblasts to secrete factors that promote the differentiation of bone marrow cells into osteoclasts; targeting this protein could therefore potentially help treat diseases associated with excessive bone loss.
A gene duplication event has permitted the functional specialization of a homeodomain transcription factor through changes in exon-intron organization and these changes have supported the evolution of a major, phylum-level morphological novelty.
Despite their extreme morphologies, snakes display a global regulatory strategy of their Hox genes similar to that implemented by mammals with, however, important modifications in enhancer specificity.
Genetic studies in mice reveal the molecular and embryological mechanisms of vocal fold development and function, thereby informing our understanding of vocal communication and congenital voice defects.
Genetic analyses in mice reveal a communication system between the knee joint and the developing bones that could be explored in studies addressing evolutionary changes in body proportions and in future therapies for growth disorders.