Unfair competition, in which a phosphatase and a phosphoprotein inhibitor/substrate mutually sequester each other from competing substrates and enzymes, is a conserved mechanism for the control of PPP family phosphatases.
Administration of dopamine and opioid receptor antagonists resulted in reduced reward anticipation (effort and increased negative facial reactions), but only administration of opioid antagonists resulted in reduced liking (facial reactions).
Morphologic, molecular, biomechanical and computational analyses show that the specialized extracellular matrix architecture of the umbilical artery contributes to its rapid closure at birth and regulates smooth muscle cell differentiation.
Changes in pathways of lipid oxidation, glycolysis, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are common strategies to cope with high-altitude hypoxia, but some changes require longer evolutionary time to arise.
Mapping the locations of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy gene variants onto the three-dimensional structures of contractile proteins revealed that these disrupt protein interactions are critical for normal cardiac relaxation and efficient energy usage.
When ancestral Xenopus returned to water ~170mya, they evolved a new method for producing courtship calls underwater without airflow, using vibrations that also preserve essential acoustic information on species identity.