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    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Absence of TGFβ signaling in retinal microglia induces retinal degeneration and exacerbates choroidal neovascularization

    Wenxin Ma et al.
    TGFβ signaling to retinal microglia is central to the regulation of neuroinflammatory responses relevant to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the developed world.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Gut microbiota density influences host physiology and is shaped by host and microbial factors

    Eduardo J Contijoch et al.
    The density of the gut microbiota influences the host immune system and adiposity, and can be therapeutically manipulated.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Evolutionary pathways of repeat protein topology in bacterial outer membrane proteins

    Meghan Whitney Franklin et al.
    There is a strand-based evolutionary mechanism for the diversification of outer membrane proteins, which has implications for how repeat proteins are created and for how outer membrane proteins fold.
    1. Neuroscience

    Bayesian analysis of retinotopic maps

    Noah C Benson, Jonathan Winawer
    A novel Bayesian method of modeling retinotopic maps is more accurate than traditional voxel-wise methods and can be used to automatically derive high-quality maps.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Primed Track, high-fidelity lineage tracing in mouse pre-implantation embryos using primed conversion of photoconvertible proteins

    Maaike Welling et al.
    Primed Track is an image analysis tool that allows for computational correction of drifting specimen to enable accurate lineage tracing of mammalian pre-implantation development even for larger imaging time intervals.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Immune genes are hotspots of shared positive selection across birds and mammals

    Allison J Shultz, Timothy B Sackton
    Pathogens, particularly viruses, target the same genes over deep evolutionary time, resulting in shared signatures of positive selection and transcriptional responses at the same genes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Comparisons between the ON- and OFF-edge motion pathways in the Drosophila brain

    Kazunori Shinomiya et al.
    A complete connectome of the ON and OFF motion pathways of the Drosophila optic lobe is acquired using three-dimensional EM methods, and the similarities and differences of the two pathways are uncovered.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Chronology of motor-mediated microtubule streaming

    Arvind Ravichandran et al.
    Microtubule streaming driven by molecular motors covers characteristic times that span several orders of magnitude from fast, single-microtubule sliding on molecular scales to slow, collective motion on cellular scales.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Synergy between RecBCD subunits is essential for efficient DNA unwinding

    Rani Zananiri et al.
    A new optical tweezers assay sheds light on the mechanism of cooperation and force generation by the subunits of RecBCD, critical for the repair of double strand breaks in bacteria.
    1. Neuroscience

    High-throughput synapse-resolving two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy for deep-brain volumetric imaging in vivo

    Guanghan Meng et al.
    Improved two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy enables volumetric imaging of synapses and neurons in deep brain structures in vivo.