During quiet wakefulness but not slow wave sleep, reward modulated VTA neurons coordinate selectively with hippocampal replay sequences and are biased in their timing towards the reactivated representation of reward locations.
A new three-step monosynaptic premotor tracing strategy in adult mice, together with registration to the Allen mouse common coordinate framework, uncovered precise spatial relationships of distinct orofacial premotor circuits in the brainstem.
3D niche topology imposes a spatially biased random stem cell loss, which is differentially fine-tuned in neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium to regulate growth, shape, and cellular topology.
Hippocampal and prefrontal neuronal populations form slow behavioral-timescale (~seconds) and fast cognitive-timescale (~100 ms) sequential activity patterns as theta and replay sequences, which play distinct yet cooperative roles in memory-guided decision-making.
Empirical evidence suggests that the hippocampus constructs maps of spatial environments based on the relative locations of places (i.e., topology), rather than absolute distances and coordinates (i.e., geometry).