The placement of single methyl groups at certain positions in the sequence of small model transmembrane proteins consisting solely of leucines and isoleucines can modulate highly specific, productive interactions with the transmembrane domain of the erythropoietin receptor.
Analysis of the global genetic requirements and gene expression changes in E. coli in the presence of a simple microbiome revealed pairwise and higher-order interactions, and underlying molecular mechanisms.
Different developmental stages of a venomous animal (e.g. Nematostella vectensis) with a complex life cycle produce vastly different venoms that can serve in different antagonistic interactions with other species.
Weak yet highly species-specific protein-protein interactions enhance the activity of metabolically related enzymes in bacteria at endogenous conditions, but also mean that overexpression of one partner leads to permanent non-physiological complexes and gene dosage toxicity.