During behavior, many neurons do not have classic trial-averaged responses to behaviorally relevant stimuli, but can still have activity and population dynamics related to stimulus and behavioral choice on single trials.
Cerebellar Purkinje neurons use a multiplexed simple spike code combining synchrony/spike time and firing rate, with each component encoding distinct information about movements such as motion onset timing and kinematics.
The activation of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in spines by action potentials regulates the induction of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity during low-frequency single action potential–EPSP pairing.
Stride-related modulated firing by neurons of the cerebellar nuclei is required for smooth execution of practiced locomotion and persists more easily with synchronous than asynchronous Purkinje-mediated inhibition.
When coupling between STN spikes and cortical gamma oscillations was strong, subsequent movement was initiated earlier, independent of changes in mean firing rates, demonstrating the importance of relative spike timing.