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    1. Neuroscience

    Energy efficient synaptic plasticity

    Ho Ling Li, Mark CW van Rossum
    The metabolic efficiency of learning in networks is improved by using forms of synaptic plasticity with different levels of persistence.
    1. Neuroscience

    A Toll-receptor map underlies structural brain plasticity

    Guiyi Li et al.
    Structural brain plasticity is encoded in the topographic distribution of Toll receptors and their ability to switch between alternative signalling outcomes, thus translating diverse sensory experience into structural change.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Chemoptogenetic ablation of neuronal mitochondria in vivo with spatiotemporal precision and controllable severity

    Wenting Xie et al.
    Novel transgenic zebrafish lines allow selective ablation of neuronal mitochondria by far red light, providing a powerful tool for investigating mitochondrial homeostasis in neurons and mitochondrial mechanisms in neurological disease.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Enhanced ER-associated degradation of HMG CoA reductase causes embryonic lethality associated with Ubiad1 deficiency

    Youngah Jo et al.
    Embryonic lethality associated with deficiency of UBIAD1, which synthesizes a vitamin K2 subtype, results from aberrant ER-associated degradation of the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Metabolic and non-metabolic liver zonation is established non-synchronously and requires sinusoidal Wnts

    Ruihua Ma et al.
    Mouse genetic approaches show that multiple Wnt endothelial sources orchestrate the spatiotemporal distribution of hepatocyte functions during liver maturation and respecify metabolic zonation during liver repair.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    p16 deficiency attenuates intervertebral disc degeneration by adjusting oxidative stress and nucleus pulposus cell cycle

    Hui Che et al.
    A novel IVDD mechanism that involves p16 is demonstrated and theoretical evidence is provided for effective methods to downregulate p16 and so reverse IVDD.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Neuroscience

    Losing Dnmt3a dependent methylation in inhibitory neurons impairs neural function by a mechanism impacting Rett syndrome

    Laura A Lavery et al.
    Dnmt3a regulates gene expression in inhibitory neurons by writing all mCH and some mCG, and MeCP2 reads some of these mCH sites driving a portion of these gene expression changes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Synaptic mechanisms underlying modulation of locomotor-related motoneuron output by premotor cholinergic interneurons

    Filipe Nascimento et al.
    The pairing of chemogenetic and electrophysiological approaches reveals mechanisms by which cholinergic synapses modulate the final motor output of the nervous system.
    1. Neuroscience

    Microglial depletion disrupts normal functional development of adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb

    Jenelle Wallace et al.
    Adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb that develop in the absence of microglia have a higher density of small spines but weaker excitatory inputs and reduced responses to sensory stimuli.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mechanisms that allow cortical preparatory activity without inappropriate movement

    Timothy R Darlington, Stephen G Lisberger
    The use of preparatory activity in the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields as a visual-motor gain signal allows preparation to progress without inappropriate movement.