Neuronal participation in generation of motor patterns in the spinal circuits is lognormal, which is an indication of a rich diversity of activity within the mean-driven as well as the fluctuation-driven regimes.
At distal synapses onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, synaptic plasticity is dependent on dendritically initiated sodium spikes, thus establishing a new role for voltage-gated sodium channels in the dendrites that may have important implications for how learning rules are implemented.
Live imaging and genetic analyses revealed that notochord vacuoles play a critical role in spine morphogenesis by absorbing vertebral bone growth, thus implicating notochord mechanics in congenital scoliosis.
The flow of somatosensory information through the spinal dorsal horn is regulated by synaptic inhibition, which acts upon excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, but the former are especially prone to disinhibition.
Acetylcholine, a common modulator in the brain, controls spike-frequency adaptation by specifically attenuating Ether-a-go-go related K+ currents, thereby explaining many cortical network statistical changes often observed in vivo.