Neuronal participation in generation of motor patterns in the spinal circuits is lognormal, which is an indication of a rich diversity of activity within the mean-driven as well as the fluctuation-driven regimes.
When coupling between STN spikes and cortical gamma oscillations was strong, subsequent movement was initiated earlier, independent of changes in mean firing rates, demonstrating the importance of relative spike timing.
At distal synapses onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, synaptic plasticity is dependent on dendritically initiated sodium spikes, thus establishing a new role for voltage-gated sodium channels in the dendrites that may have important implications for how learning rules are implemented.
Acetylcholine, a common modulator in the brain, controls spike-frequency adaptation by specifically attenuating Ether-a-go-go related K+ currents, thereby explaining many cortical network statistical changes often observed in vivo.
Spinal Shox2 interneurons are strongly interconnected by gap junctional coupling in a function-specific manner, which provides a mechanism for synchronization of rhythm-generating neurons and may contribute to locomotor rhythmicity.