Pleasant touch perception in humans is unaffected by spinothalamic disruption indicating integrated spinal processing of hedonic and discriminative tactile inputs rather than privileged C-tactile-lamina I-spinothalamic projections.
Circuit and transcriptional analysis shows that genetically defined central amygdala neurons and their projections to the ventral periaqueductal gray mediate behavioral and affective responses to pruritus.
MRGPRD and MRGRPX1 are co-expressed in primate DRG neurons, but β-alanine and BAM8-22, preferentially activate CMH-subclasses, and co-activating different cutaneous nociceptors by pruritogens does not change itch sensation to pain.
In nematode worms, the length of the male refractory period–the time between matings–is regulated by multiple transmitters including dopamine, which both promotes ejaculation and reduces the activity of males post-copulation.
A novel mechanism for gating nociceptive sensory-motor behavior is identified in freely behaving rats using high-speed videography that is controlled by posture and modulated by opioid and non-opioid receptor-dependent processes.