The extinct stilt-legged equids of North America are not related to Asiatic asses or horses, but instead represent a distinct lineage outside of living equid diversity that became extinct in the terminal Pleistocene.
Advances in techniques for analysing single cells and tissues have inspired an international effort to create comprehensive reference maps of all human cells - the fundamental units of life - as a basis for both understanding human health and diagnosing, monitoring and treating disease.
The nerve growth-repellent activity that generates spinal nerve repeat-patterning in birds and mammals is identified at the molecular level, and a similar system is revealed in adult brain grey matter.
ZCWPW1 is a histone modification reader that localizes to DMC1-labelled double-strand break hotspots in a largely PRDM9-dependent manner, where it facilitates completion of synapsis by mediating DSB repair process.
A gain-of-function in a new chemical defense resulted in no trade-offs and and independent evolution between novel and ancestral defenses, suggesting low redundancy among different defensive chemicals.