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    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Translation: Finding sense in the context

    Kim M Keeling, David M Bedwell
    Ribosomal profiling has shed new light on how ribosomes can ignore stop codons in messenger RNA.
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    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A unifying mechanism for the biogenesis of membrane proteins co-operatively integrated by the Sec and Tat pathways

    Fiona J Tooke et al.
    Bioinformatics and experimental approaches identify families of membrane proteins requiring the co-ordinated action of the Sec pathway and Tat pathways for their integration and define features of the polypeptides that mediate interaction with these pathways.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Nonsense mRNA suppression via nonstop decay

    Joshua A Arribere, Andrew Z Fire
    Nonstop mRNA decay degrades mRNAs with a premature stop codon after such mRNAs are targeted by the nonsense-mediated decay machinery.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Thousands of novel translated open reading frames in humans inferred by ribosome footprint profiling

    Anil Raj et al.
    Over 7,000 novel translated sequences have been identified from human cells, including several hundred in annotated noncoding RNA, pseudogenes and de novo assembled transcripts.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    A systematically-revised ribosome profiling method for bacteria reveals pauses at single-codon resolution

    Fuad Mohammad et al.
    With the removal of confounding artifacts, ribosome profiling can yield insight into the mechanism of protein synthesis in bacteria at high resolution.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Sec17 (α-SNAP) and an SM-tethering complex regulate the outcome of SNARE zippering in vitro and in vivo

    Matthew L Schwartz et al.
    Sec17 is shown to have divergent effects on pre-fusion SNARE complex activity, depending on the state of SNARE zippering and HOPS, an SM-tether complex, controls the outcome of Sec17-SNARE engagement.
    1. Cell Biology

    Distinct regulatory ribosomal ubiquitylation events are reversible and hierarchically organized

    Danielle M Garshott et al.
    A hierarchical relationship among highly conserved regulatory ribosomal ubiquitylation events and the presence of antagonistic deubiquitylating enzymes suggests a dynamic ubiquitin code impacts ribosome-associated activities.
    1. Cell Biology

    USP16 counteracts mono-ubiquitination of RPS27a and promotes maturation of the 40S ribosomal subunit

    Christian Montellese et al.
    The deubiquitinase USP16 is associated with cytoplasmic precursors of 40S ribosomal subunits and promotes their final maturation by removal of trans-monoubiquitin from RPS27a.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Nanopore direct RNA sequencing maps the complexity of Arabidopsis mRNA processing and m6A modification

    Matthew T Parker et al.
    Sequencing mRNA directly with nanopores can reveal the authentic combinations of multiple mRNA processing events in full-length mRNA molecules in addition to identifying base modifications.
    1. Cell Biology

    GAS5 protects against osteoporosis by targeting UPF1/SMAD7 axis in osteoblast differentiation

    Ming Li et al.
    GAS5 is related to osteoporosis by regulating the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells that acts as a promising treatment target for osteoporosis.