Two photon calcium imaging experiments show that excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the mouse superior colliculus are differentially modulated by the motion contrast between stimulus center and surround.
The subcortical visual pathway through the midbrain superior colliculus is responsible for visually evoked Pavlovian conditioning and dopamine neuron responses with predicted value in monkeys, which remained after lesioning V1.
Non-invasive disinhibition of the oculomotor system shows that ongoing preparatory activity in the superior colliculus has movement-generating potential and need not rise to threshold in order to produce a saccade.
Neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus of free-flying echolocating bats represent 3D sensory space, and the depth tuning of single neurons is modulated by an animal's active sonar inspection of physical objects in its environment.
While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.