Active zone release probability is correlated with calcium channel density and calcium influx at single release sites, with release strength increasing in an activity-dependent manner during synapse maturation.
Plexin controls the spatial distribution of synapses by locally inhibiting Rap2 small GTPase activity along the axon, and a Rap2 effector, TNIK, which also plays a key role in inhibiting synapse number.
During the second postnatal week, a temporary circuit made up of specific types of neurons plus the precursors of oligodendrocytes is established in the brain, and may promote the maturation of oligodendrocytes in preparation for myelination.
During adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb, microglia regulate the elimination (pruning), formation, and maintenance of synapses on newborn neurons, contributing to the functional integrity of the olfactory bulb circuitry.
Proteins implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, including amyloid precursor protein and ApoE receptors, interact with each other and with a signalling molecule called agrin to influence the development of the neuromuscular junction.