Defects in synapse regeneration limit functional circuit recovery after nerve injury by misdirecting information via ectopic dendritic synapses, and also by functional and molecular deficits in reformed axonal synapses.
Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization shapes how B lymphocytes probe the surface of antigen-presenting cells, promotes coalescence of B cell receptor (BCR) microclusters, amplifies BCR signaling, and enhances B cell activation.
A novel regulatory cascade downstream of Tau and spectraplakins ensures that synaptic proteins are delivered to axonal terminals in the developing and ageing brain, providing potential explanations for precocious synapse loss in dementias.
Inhibition of the catalytic activity of the Zap70 kinase reveals that discrete TCR-regulated events control the remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton when the cytotoxic T cell interacts with its target.
Plexin controls the spatial distribution of synapses by locally inhibiting Rap2 small GTPase activity along the axon, and a Rap2 effector, TNIK, which also plays a key role in inhibiting synapse number.
Young neurons of the adult hippocampus are synaptically activated by a small group of non-overlapping afferent excitatory fibers, due to high synaptic gain and sparse connectivity, important for sparse and orthogonal coding during hippocampal information processing.