Experiments in zebrafish reveal a new role for a critical hypothalamic transcription factor, orthopedia, in controlling developmental neuropeptide balance in a discrete oxytocin-producing neuronal circuit whose disrupted development affects social behavior.
Attenuated anticipatory activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex is modulated by dopamine D1 receptor density in nucleus accumbens, and accounts for impaired probabilistic reward learning in older adults.
When conscious visual perception changes, the observer's pupils simultaneously signal the accompanying change in visual cortical representation, and specific neuromodulatory activity that helps translate the altered visual experience into behavior.
Veterans with PTSD show increased attention to a history of unexpected outcomes during loss learning, both as measured by computational model-derived behavioral parameters and in increased neural signaling in amygdala and insula.
The secondary motor cortex causally contributes to flexible action selection during stimulus categorization with the representations of upcoming choice and sensory history regulated by the demand to remap stimulus–action association.