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    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Early life imprints the hierarchy of T cell clone sizes

    Mario U Gaimann et al.
    The rapid development of immune memory in infancy shapes the composition of T cell defenses throughout the human lifespan.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dipolar extracellular potentials generated by axonal projections

    Thomas McColgan et al.
    Action potentials propagating in axon bundles with bifurcating and terminating fibers cause strong and far-reaching extracellular potentials.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    The evolution of strategy in bacterial warfare via the regulation of bacteriocins and antibiotics

    Rene Niehus et al.
    Evolutionary game theory identifies reciprocation as a key winning strategy for warring bacteria.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The birth of a bacterial tRNA gene by large-scale, tandem duplication events

    Gökçe B Ayan et al.
    A bacterial tRNA gene set rapidly evolves, compensating the loss of one tRNA type by large duplication events that increase the gene copy number of a second, different tRNA type.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Biomolecular interactions modulate macromolecular structure and dynamics in atomistic model of a bacterial cytoplasm

    Isseki Yu et al.
    Crowding and metabolites in a simulated cellular environment alter protein conformations, modulate interactions of functionally related proteins, and lead to significant dynamic heterogeneity.
    1. Plant Biology

    Fluctuations of the transcription factor ATML1 generate the pattern of giant cells in the Arabidopsis sepal

    Heather M Meyer et al.
    Fluctuations of a transcription factor that coincide with the G2 phase of the cell cycle pattern two interspersed cell fates in a multicellular system.
    1. Neuroscience

    Synaptic learning rules for sequence learning

    Eric Torsten Reifenstein et al.
    Through mathematical analysis and computer simulations, the neuronal underpinnings of feasible models of sequence learning are delineated.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Bichir external gills arise via heterochronic shift that accelerates hyoid arch development

    Jan Stundl et al.
    Unique heterochrony in the cranial segments in bichirs triggers the early formation of their external gills, and might be informative about developmental mechanisms facilitating increased breathing capacity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Clusters of cooperative ion channels enable a membrane-potential-based mechanism for short-term memory

    Paul Pfeiffer et al.
    Independently gating ion channels typically act fast within milliseconds, but cooperative interactions within a cluster of channels allow for a memory of previous electrical activity for several seconds.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    The naive T-cell receptor repertoire has an extremely broad distribution of clone sizes

    Peter C de Greef et al.
    Combining experiments, bioinformatics, and mathematical modelling, we find large heterogeneity in naive T cell clone sizes.