Transcription factors form clusters independently of the presence of DNA, which regulate target genes as opposed to individual monomers, addressing a longstanding question of how transcription factors can find gene targets so quickly.
The conserved biochemical activity of the duplicate Bab transcription factors were integrated into the regulatory hierarchy of an evolving gene regulatory network by binding site gains in a target gene's cis-regulatory region.
A gene duplication event has permitted the functional specialization of a homeodomain transcription factor through changes in exon-intron organization and these changes have supported the evolution of a major, phylum-level morphological novelty.
Seemingly redundant homologous transcription factors play distinct and cooperative roles in time-dependent combinatorial gene regulation and enable dynamic control of heterogeneity in the gene responses to environmental stresses.
Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A1 controls the process of heat shock response, from transcriptional activation of the HSP70 gene, to HSP70 mRNA stabilization, nuclear export, and translation.