Seemingly redundant homologous transcription factors play distinct and cooperative roles in time-dependent combinatorial gene regulation and enable dynamic control of heterogeneity in the gene responses to environmental stresses.
Transcription factors form clusters independently of the presence of DNA, which regulate target genes as opposed to individual monomers, addressing a longstanding question of how transcription factors can find gene targets so quickly.
Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A1 controls the process of heat shock response, from transcriptional activation of the HSP70 gene, to HSP70 mRNA stabilization, nuclear export, and translation.
Drosophila has almost all transcription factor binding specificities available to humans; and human transcription factors with divergent specificities operate in cell types that are not found in fruit flies.
Experimental mapping of the joint sequence space of an ancient transcription factor (TF) and its DNA binding sites reveals that epistasis across the molecular interface permitted the evolution of a new and specific TF-DNA complex.