A gene duplication event has permitted the functional specialization of a homeodomain transcription factor through changes in exon-intron organization and these changes have supported the evolution of a major, phylum-level morphological novelty.
The conserved biochemical activity of the duplicate Bab transcription factors were integrated into the regulatory hierarchy of an evolving gene regulatory network by binding site gains in a target gene's cis-regulatory region.
Transcription factors form clusters independently of the presence of DNA, which regulate target genes as opposed to individual monomers, addressing a longstanding question of how transcription factors can find gene targets so quickly.
Seemingly redundant homologous transcription factors play distinct and cooperative roles in time-dependent combinatorial gene regulation and enable dynamic control of heterogeneity in the gene responses to environmental stresses.
Drosophila has almost all transcription factor binding specificities available to humans; and human transcription factors with divergent specificities operate in cell types that are not found in fruit flies.
Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A1 controls the process of heat shock response, from transcriptional activation of the HSP70 gene, to HSP70 mRNA stabilization, nuclear export, and translation.