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    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Reporter-ChIP-nexus reveals strong contribution of the Drosophila initiator sequence to RNA polymerase pausing

    Wanqing Shao et al.
    Reporter-ChIP-nexus captures paused Pol II on transfected plasmids and shows that pausing stability is influenced by core promoter sequences, especially by the initiator with a G at +2 position.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    A continuum model of transcriptional bursting

    Adam M Corrigan et al.
    Rather than switching between discrete on and off states, gene transcription exists in a spectrum or continuum of states, with a slowly changing initiation rate modulating the levels of activity.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    GE23077 binds to the RNA polymerase ‘i’ and ‘i+1’ sites and prevents the binding of initiating nucleotides

    Yu Zhang et al.
    The cyclic-peptide antibiotic GE23077 inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase through a novel target that exhibits low susceptibility to target-based resistance and that enables synthesis of bipartite inhibitors that are exceptionally potent and refractory to target-based resistance.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Crl activates transcription by stabilizing active conformation of the master stress transcription initiation factor

    Juncao Xu et al.
    The cryo-EM structure of Escherichia coli Crl–TAC reveals the mechanism of DNA-contact-independent transcription activation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Highly efficient 5' capping of mitochondrial RNA with NAD+ and NADH by yeast and human mitochondrial RNA polymerase

    Jeremy G Bird et al.
    Eukaryotic mitochondrial RNA polymerases cap RNA with NAD with much higher efficiencies than nuclear RNA polymerase II; as a consequence, mitochondrial RNAs have remarkably high levels of NAD capping.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Active RNAP pre-initiation sites are highly mutated by cytidine deaminases in yeast, with AID targeting small RNA genes

    Benjamin JM Taylor et al.
    Transcribed promoters are highly susceptible to mutation by cytidine deaminases, implicating stable exposure of single stranded DNA structures, rather than cofactors, in localising mutation during tumourigenesis and antibody maturation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    CarD uses a minor groove wedge mechanism to stabilize the RNA polymerase open promoter complex

    Brian Bae et al.
    The crystal structure of Thermus transcription activation complexes containing the transcriptional activator CarD reveals a new mechanism for the activation of transcription.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Cap-proximal nucleotides via differential eIF4E binding and alternative promoter usage mediate translational response to energy stress

    Ana Tamarkin-Ben-Harush et al.
    Differential eIF4E binding to transcription initiation nucleotides and alternative promoter usage of eIF1A, PABP and other genes are involved in the response of the translation machinery to energy stress.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The primary σ factor in Escherichia coli can access the transcription elongation complex from solution in vivo

    Seth R Goldman et al.
    The sigma subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase, classically known as an initiation factor, can also operate as an elongation factor with effects that vary with growth phase.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The complete structure of the human TFIIH core complex

    Basil J Greber et al.
    The structure of human transcription factor IIH, a critical DNA repair and transcription initiation factor, has been determined by cryo-electron microscopy.