Seemingly redundant homologous transcription factors play distinct and cooperative roles in time-dependent combinatorial gene regulation and enable dynamic control of heterogeneity in the gene responses to environmental stresses.
A combination of X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics and small angle X-ray scattering shows that the transcription antiterminator M2-1 is a structurally dynamic homotetramer that undergoes large concerted conformational changes upon binding its target RNA.
In contrast to published findings showing exclusion, transcription factors in fact bind mitotic chromosomes in a dynamic fashion, allowing for efficient transmission of transcription programs through mitosis.
A simple and effective method facilitates the study of in vivo transcriptional dynamics using transcriptional enhancers and destabilized fluorescent protein, which is suitable for both live imaging and fixed studies.
OCT4 and SOX2 display partially independent activity to regulate chromatin accessibility, and highly dynamic activity of OCT4 is required throughout the cell cycle to maintain pluripotency enhancer accessibility.