Following fertilization, the pioneering transcription factors GAGA factor (GAF) and Zelda are independently required to reprogram the zygotic genome of Drosophila and activate the first wave of gene expression.
Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to provide a structural interpretation of the complete action cycle of release factor 3 during translation termination, which includes a coordinated sequence of interactions with a class-I release factor and the ribosome.
Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A1 controls the process of heat shock response, from transcriptional activation of the HSP70 gene, to HSP70 mRNA stabilization, nuclear export, and translation.
During initiation factor-independent RNA structure-driven translation initiation, a flexible RNA element drives the movement of a viral IRES through the ribosome's tRNA binding sites and promotes tRNA binding.
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is required to stabilize the binding of mRNA at the exit channel of the small ribosomal subunit and acts at the entry channel to accelerate mRNA recruitment to the translation preinitiation complex.