Connectomic analysis demonstrates that a brain circuit, that may be conserved between flies and mammals, uses both fast synaptic transmission as well as peptidergic neuromodulation to connect chemosensory and endocrine systems.
Interferon-λ plays a decisive and previously underestimated role in limiting the spread of respiratory viruses from the nasal cavity to the lungs and it efficiently restricts virus transmission from infected individuals to naïve contacts.
Dopamine neurons make novel glutamatergic connections to striatal cholinergic interneurons in the lateral dorsal striatum that are mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors coupled to TrpC channels.
MmuPV1, a papillomavirus that infects laboratory mice (Mus musculus), is discovered to be sexually transmitted, providing a new animal virus model to study sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPVs).
Analysis of epidemiological data reveals that viral loads in newly HIV-1 infected individuals in Uganda have declined for two decades, and evolutionary modelling shows that attenuation of the virus explains this decline.
HIV co-infection does not affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutation rates and does not drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance within patients in the largest outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latin America to date.