Connectomic analysis demonstrates that a brain circuit, that may be conserved between flies and mammals, uses both fast synaptic transmission as well as peptidergic neuromodulation to connect chemosensory and endocrine systems.
Interferon-λ plays a decisive and previously underestimated role in limiting the spread of respiratory viruses from the nasal cavity to the lungs and it efficiently restricts virus transmission from infected individuals to naïve contacts.
Analysis of epidemiological data reveals that viral loads in newly HIV-1 infected individuals in Uganda have declined for two decades, and evolutionary modelling shows that attenuation of the virus explains this decline.
HIV co-infection does not affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutation rates and does not drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance within patients in the largest outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latin America to date.
Cells within the retina synchronize transmitter release across their output synapses in the dark, reducing the impact of noise generated at these synapses and allowing light-dependent signals to be transmitted with minimal added synaptic noise.
The conditional reduction of glutaminase in mouse dopamine neurons selectively attenuates glutamate cotransmission at phasic frequencies, revealing the role of dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission in the attribution of motivational salience.