Molecular labeling, electrophysiology and calcium imaging have revealed a novel switching of neurotransmitter at the frog neuromuscular junction where motoneurons transiently release glutamate before acetylcholine at synapses on developing hindlimb muscles at the onset of metamorphosis.
Infection experiments in ferrets reveal swine influenza viruses need their hemagglutinin antigen to become stabilized for transmissibility, adding a new property to consider when triaging field isolates for pandemic potential.
Connectomic analysis demonstrates that a brain circuit, that may be conserved between flies and mammals, uses both fast synaptic transmission as well as peptidergic neuromodulation to connect chemosensory and endocrine systems.
Genetic and electrophysiological analyses reveal that the mechanisms orchestrating the induction and expression of homeostatic plasticity are compartmentalized and operate with exquisite specificity on both sides of the synapse.
Sequencing mRNA from thousands of single cells from the Drosophila brain highlights the extent of cellular diversity and reveals co-expression of specific neuropeptides with particular fast-acting neurotransmitters and monoamines.
Placing the PACAP/PAC1 signaling within glutamate/GABA cell type and subregional contexts in mouse brain reveals its conspicuous role for sensorimotor circuit interaction through modulating neuronal plasticity.
Neurons of the cholinergic system, which release the excitatory neurotransmitter acetycholine throughout the cortex, also release the inhibitory transmitter GABA, with potential implications for cognitive function.
Interferon-λ plays a decisive and previously underestimated role in limiting the spread of respiratory viruses from the nasal cavity to the lungs and it efficiently restricts virus transmission from infected individuals to naïve contacts.