A fluoroquinolone resistant variant of Salmonella Typhi has emerged that is likely to be widespread in the Indian subcontinent; therefore fluoroquinolones should not be recommended for empirical typhoid fever therapy in this setting.
Mass spectrometry on plasma from patients with typhoid fever and other febrile disease identified and validated 24 metabolites that can distinguish typhoid from other febrile diseases, providing a new approach for typhoid diagnostics.
The major evolutionary routes to drug resistance in Salmonella Typhi are associated with fitness benefits, not fitness costs, implying that prudent antimicrobial use will have no effect as a public health intervention in controlling typhoid fever.
Biochemical analyses and the crystal structure of TtsA reveal fundamental insight into the mechanisms by which this muramidase recognizes its peptidoglycan substrate to facilitate typhoid toxin secretion.
Innate lymphoid cells, which are dynamic under steady-state conditions, respond to a colitogenic stimulus by mobilizing from cryptopatches and secreting GM-CSF to organize the pro-inflammatory response.
Operant drug self-administration in a mouse model of neuropathic pain reveals pain-relieving effects of a cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist that are mediated through CB2 receptors of neurons and lymphocytes.
Circulating human primed innate lymphoid cell precursors have the potential to functionally induce adhesion molecules' expression in endothelial cells and possibly support the immune cells' infiltration into the tumor site.