MRI methods are promising techniques for investigating the human subcortical auditory system, and these publicly available data, atlases, and tools make researching human audition simpler and more reliable.
Toxoplasma gondii infection leads to conversion of natural killer cells into cells resembling innate lymphoid cells, group 1, that circulate widely, disrupting current notions suggesting that these cells have distinct lineages.
A new cell–cell communication system in Streptococcus salivarius, a human gut commensal, discriminates between close signaling molecules to specifically produce bacteriocin-based antimicrobials and disconnects it from foreign DNA acquisition.
Microbial-sensing TLRs drive responses to the microbiota, while nucleic-acid sensing TLRs control responses to endogenous ligands, revealing novel regulation of B-1a responses through integrated BCR/TLR mediated activation.
B-1 cell unresponsiveness to antigen-stimulation is overcome during infections when Toll-like receptor engagement removes negative regulators of B cell receptor signaling, thereby supporting B-1 cell differentiation to IgM-secreting plasmablasts.
A continuously expressed LIM HD factor, Lmx1b, acts at successive stages to orchestrate the progressive morphological maturation of a long-range profusely arborized neuromodulatory axonal projection pathway.