Reward-related cues elicit phasic changes in activity in ventral pallidum neurons, which predict and functionally contribute to the speed of behaviors trained on the basis of act-outcome, but not stimulus-outcome, contingencies.
Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in zebrafish is mediated by a graded source-sink mechanism in which diffusing BMP, produced from a ventrally biased source, is inhibited by dorsally-produced chordin.
Functional neuroimaging reveals sensitivity to shape information and correlation between brain activation and perceptual behaviour in both dorsal and ventral visual pathways, thereby challenging the strict binary distinctions between the two pathways.
The cessation of major anthropogenic disturbances since European colonization in the forests of central Africa leads to a canopy closing, and to the disappearance of certain light-demanding tree species.
Ultra-high field neuroimaging dissects the ventral medial geniculate body (vMGB) of the primary auditory pathway from other MGB subregions and reveals that vMGB top-down modulation is relevant for speech recognition.