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    1. Neuroscience

    The influence of the descending pain modulatory system on infant pain-related brain activity

    Sezgi Goksan et al.
    Greater connectivity of the descending pain modulatory system network in the infant brain is associated with lower pain-related brain activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Motor thalamus supports striatum-driven reinforcement

    Arnaud L Lalive et al.
    While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.
    1. Neuroscience

    Molecular and anatomical organization of the dorsal raphe nucleus

    Kee Wui Huang et al.
    The dorsal raphe nucleus contains transcriptionally diverse cell classes that include subtypes of serotonergic neurons with distinct molecular and anatomical signatures.
    1. Neuroscience

    Anatomical and functional organization of the human substantia nigra and its connections

    Yu Zhang et al.
    The human substantia nigra can be parcellated into three subdivisions that subserve emotional, cognitive and somatomotor function.
    1. Neuroscience

    A connectional hub in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex links areas of emotion and cognitive control

    Wei Tang et al.
    A hub in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex receives unusually high and functionally diverse inputs, providing a biological interface between motivation, incentive based learning, and decision making.
    1. Neuroscience

    The hippocampus supports deliberation during value-based decisions

    Akram Bakkour et al.
    The deliberation involved in simple preference decisions, such as those between two familiar snacks, depends on the hippocampus.
    1. Neuroscience

    Capturing the temporal evolution of choice across prefrontal cortex

    Laurence T Hunt et al.
    Experiments in macaques and humans reveal time-varying changes in prefrontal cortex activity that occur during decisions based on costs and benefits.
    1. Neuroscience

    Decreased brain connectivity in smoking contrasts with increased connectivity in drinking

    Wei Cheng et al.
    The findings have a major impact in understanding the different reward systems involved in two types of addictive behavior, and these advances have implications for prevention and treatment.
    1. Neuroscience

    Value generalization in human avoidance learning

    Agnes Norbury et al.
    Individual differences in generalization of aversive value (but not safety information) during human active avoidance learning specifically predict experience of anxiety and intrusive thoughts.
    1. Neuroscience

    Associability-modulated loss learning is increased in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Vanessa M Brown et al.
    Veterans with PTSD show increased attention to a history of unexpected outcomes during loss learning, both as measured by computational model-derived behavioral parameters and in increased neural signaling in amygdala and insula.