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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Fast retrieval and autonomous regulation of single spontaneously recycling synaptic vesicles

    Jeremy Leitz, Ege T Kavalali
    Spontaneous fusion of vesicles at synapses is regulated independently of fusion triggered by action potentials, adding to evidence that the two types of fusion have distinct functions.
    1. Neuroscience

    RIM-BP2 primes synaptic vesicles via recruitment of Munc13-1 at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    Marisa M Brockmann et al.
    The active zone scaffold protein RIM-BP2 performs distinct functions in vesicle release at two hippocampal synapses, providing insights on how synapses express diversity in release properties.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human pyramidal to interneuron synapses are mediated by multi-vesicular release and multiple docked vesicles

    Gábor Molnár et al.
    The compactness of synaptic release sites coupled with their four-fold number in humans compared to rats provides unprecedented scaleability in operation of human synapses.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Ring-like oligomers of Synaptotagmins and related C2 domain proteins

    Maria N Zanetti et al.
    A model for synchronous neurotransmitter release suggests that when not in the presence of calcium ions, Synaptotagmin proteins form ring-like structures between the vesicle and plasma membrane that prevent spontaneous fusion.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Neuroscience

    A novel region in the CaV2.1 α1 subunit C-terminus regulates fast synaptic vesicle fusion and vesicle docking at the mammalian presynaptic active zone

    Matthias Lübbert et al.
    A novel region in the CaV2.1 α1 subunit regulates coupling of synaptic vesicles to CaV2.1 calcium channels, synaptic vesicle release and docking, and the size of the fast and total releasable pools of synaptic vesicles.
    1. Neuroscience

    Rapid regulation of vesicle priming explains synaptic facilitation despite heterogeneous vesicle:Ca2+ channel distances

    Janus RL Kobbersmed et al.
    Heterogeneous distances between vesicles and Ca2+-channels make synapses prone to short-term depression, however, Ca2+-dependent increases in the number of release-ready vesicles supports facilitation even with broadly distributed vesicle:Ca2+-channel distances.
    1. Neuroscience

    Selective and regulated trapping of nicotinic receptor weak base ligands and relevance to smoking cessation

    Anitha P Govind et al.
    The smoking cessation drug varenicline (Chantix) and other weak base ligands reduce a4b2-type nicotinic receptor (a4b2R) upregulation through slow intracellular release due to selective trapping in acidic vesicles that contain a4b2Rs.
    1. Neuroscience

    Nanoscale dynamics of synaptic vesicle trafficking and fusion at the presynaptic active zone

    Thirumalini Vaithianathan et al.
    A combination of tethered diffusion of release-ready synaptic vesicles and vesicle-vesicle fusion supports neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone of sensory synapses.
    1. Neuroscience

    ELKS controls the pool of readily releasable vesicles at excitatory synapses through its N-terminal coiled-coil domains

    Richard G Held et al.
    The presynaptic active zone protein ELKS provides synapse-specific control of the pool of readily releasable vesicles and release probability.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Genetic inactivation of mTORC1 or mTORC2 in neurons reveals distinct functions in glutamatergic synaptic transmission

    Matthew P McCabe et al.
    The crucial regulator of brain function, mTOR, signals through distinct macromolecular complexes to control how synaptic vesicles are released from the presynaptic terminal.