Whole endosome recording shows that chloride interacts with vesicular glutamate transporters as both allosteric activator and permeant ion, and although the mode of permeation differs, chloride and glutamate use a related conduction pathway.
In mammals, the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 acquired a proline-rich sequence that negatively regulates the spontaneous release of glutamate by reducing the exchange of synaptic vesicles along the axon.
In central synapses, the mobility and supply of synaptic vesicles are determined by two independent biological factors: the morphological and structural organization of nerve terminals and the molecular signature of vesicles.
Activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) pauses or disrupts behavior, while STN inhibition reduces the disruptive effects of surprise, indicating that STN activation is both sufficient and necessary for behavioral inhibition.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB.T1 signaling contributes to astrocyte morphological maturation, with implications for neuronal synaptogenesis and function and astrocyte functional maturation.