Down regulation of the gain from the vestibular sensory sources prior to the initiation of movement is a motor control solution to overcome the reflex-stabilizing mechanisms to enable motion from a postural orientation.
Immunolabelling and morphological assessment, complemented by complete transcriptomic analysis, demonstrates that supporting cells can be induced to convert towards a hair cell-like phenotype in human vestibular sensory epithelia.
In central synapses, the mobility and supply of synaptic vesicles are determined by two independent biological factors: the morphological and structural organization of nerve terminals and the molecular signature of vesicles.
The spatial and dynamic properties of self-motion signals are acquired at the first stage of otolith signal transformation, which is in the brainstem and cerebellum, and conserved across brainstem, cerebellar and cortical areas.
Plasticity arising from autocatalytic receptor activation coexists with robustness in ligand responsiveness only by differential endosomal sorting of spontaneous and ligand-activated EGFR as distinct molecular states.