Release site heterogeneity represents a previously unknown level of structural and functional organization within individual active zones in central synapses, which determines the spatiotemporal dynamics of multi-vesicular release.
Down regulation of the gain from the vestibular sensory sources prior to the initiation of movement is a motor control solution to overcome the reflex-stabilizing mechanisms to enable motion from a postural orientation.
Immunolabelling and morphological assessment, complemented by complete transcriptomic analysis, demonstrates that supporting cells can be induced to convert towards a hair cell-like phenotype in human vestibular sensory epithelia.
In central synapses, the mobility and supply of synaptic vesicles are determined by two independent biological factors: the morphological and structural organization of nerve terminals and the molecular signature of vesicles.
The spatial and dynamic properties of self-motion signals are acquired at the first stage of otolith signal transformation, which is in the brainstem and cerebellum, and conserved across brainstem, cerebellar and cortical areas.