An important rice reovirus hijacks exosomes to traverse the apical plasmalemma into saliva-stored cavities in the salivary glands of insect vectors, facilitating viral horizontal transmission into rice phloem.
Proteases from diverse viruses, the first described pathogen-encoded activators of human NLRP1, cleave NLRP1 at a sequence that mimics the viral polyprotein, resulting in inflammasome activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release.
Bats' uniquely robust innate antiviral immune defenses select for faster transmitting viruses likely to generate extreme virulence upon spillover to secondary hosts with immune systems divergent from those of bat.
Analysis of epidemiological data reveals that viral loads in newly HIV-1 infected individuals in Uganda have declined for two decades, and evolutionary modelling shows that attenuation of the virus explains this decline.
Single-cell RNA sequencing highlights the influence of host–pathogen interactions and stochasticity on transcriptional and phenotypic variance in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from Epstein–Barr virus-infected primary B cells.