Uracil/adenine base pairs in HIV-1 DNA are attacked by the uracil base excision repair machinery in macrophages, which leads to HIV restriction and viral genome diversification by transcription-associated mutagenesis.
To protect mammals against retroviral infections, TRIM5 restriction factors recognize viral capsids by forming complementary hexagonal nets that can adapt to the patterns of capsid protein subunits on the viral capsid surface.
RNA virus replication is attenuated by an intrinsic restriction mechanism after introducing CpG/UpA dinucleotides into both non-translated and coding regions of viral genomes, which may be exploited in the design of attenuated virus vaccines.
Systemic hypoxia model reveals the detrimental effect of hypoxia on mitochondrial biogenesis in activated T-cells and points at a new approach for improving viral resistance in patients with respiratory diseases.
The innate immune DNA sensor IFI16 is in association with H3K9 methyltransferases SUV39H1 and GLP under physiological conditions in the nucleus which facilitates the epigenetic silencing of foreign viral DNA.