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    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Heterogeneity in transmissibility and shedding SARS-CoV-2 via droplets and aerosols

    Paul Z Chen et al.
    Broader case variation in respiratory viral load, and in shedding virus via droplets and aerosols, for SARS-CoV-2 than influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 facilitates greater transmission heterogeneity in the COVID-19 pandemic than the 2009 flu pandemic.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Science Forum: Viral factors in influenza pandemic risk assessment

    Marc Lipsitch et al.
    We identify key strengths and limitations in use of viral genotyping and phenotyping to estimate pandemic risk from influenza A viruses, focusing on 3 traits, hemagglutinin binding specificity, hemagglutinin pH of activation, and polymerase complex efficiency.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Science Forum: Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Colin A Russell et al.
    Predicting the pandemic potential of influenza viruses from genetic sequence data could transform pandemic risk assessment but progress towards this goal will require the integration of experimental work, computational tools, and virus surveillance.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    In-host population dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex during active disease

    Roger Vargas et al.
    Bulk whole genome sequencing data can be used to study the genetic variation present in pathogenic bacterial populations over the time-course of a single infection within a host.
    1. Ecology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Accelerated viral dynamics in bat cell lines, with implications for zoonotic emergence

    Cara E Brook et al.
    Bats' uniquely robust innate antiviral immune defenses select for faster transmitting viruses likely to generate extreme virulence upon spillover to secondary hosts with immune systems divergent from those of bat.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    MERS-CoV spillover at the camel-human interface

    Gytis Dudas et al.
    MERS-CoV infections in the Arabian Peninsula are the result of several hundred spillover events from viruses circulating in camels into the human population.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Exosomes mediate horizontal transmission of viral pathogens from insect vectors to plant phloem

    Qian Chen et al.
    An important rice reovirus hijacks exosomes to traverse the apical plasmalemma into saliva-stored cavities in the salivary glands of insect vectors, facilitating viral horizontal transmission into rice phloem.
    1. Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Ct threshold values, a proxy for viral load in community SARS-CoV-2 cases, demonstrate wide variation across populations and over time

    A Sarah Walker et al.
    Wide variation in cycle threshold (Ct) values from SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests over calendar time offers the potential for their broader use in public testing programmes as an ‘early-warning’ system for shifts in infectious load and hence transmission.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Revisiting the guidelines for ending isolation for COVID-19 patients

    Yong Dam Jeong et al.
    Compared with the approach isolating COVID-19 patients for a fixed period, the approach using repeated PCR testing mitigates unnecessarily lengthy isolation of patients while minimizing the risk of further transmission.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Within-host evolutionary dynamics of seasonal and pandemic human influenza A viruses in young children

    Alvin X Han et al.
    The longer duration of seasonal influenza virus infection in young children may provide opportunities for within-host evolution as a result of maintenance of genetic diversity through mutation-selection balance.