Crystallography and single particle cryo-EM reveal hexameric and pentameric structures of the ExbBD energizer in the Ton system and oligomeric transition, which provides a unique working mechanism and a new vision of dynamic membrane biology.
Targeting the differentiation regulators and/or AMPs of keratinocytes, rather than targeting immune cells, may be an alternative approach for topical anti-psoriatic treatment, an area with high need for new drugs.
Physiological differentiation during symbiosis leads to division of labor between smaller and larger cells in an uncultured bacterial tubeworm symbiont population and results in remarkable metabolic diversity and complexity.
Animal studies of fatty liver disease over-estimate the benefit of drugs due to publication bias and are confounded by off-target weight loss, illustrating the challenge of successful translational across species.
A genetic screen in a unicellular photosynthetic organism uncovers the first essential signaling component in the chloroplast unfolded protein response that relays information from the chloroplast to the nuclear compartment.