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    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Using evolution to generate sustainable malaria control with spatial repellents

    Penelope Anne Lynch, Mike Boots
    The evolution of insecticide-avoidance behaviour can be used to generate new spatial repellents to keep malaria vectors out of homes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Reverse evolution leads to genotypic incompatibility despite functional and active site convergence

    Miriam Kaltenbach et al.
    Enzyme evolution is reversible on a structural and functional (phenotypic) level, but through a different mutational pathway that leads to genotypic incompatibility with the ancestor.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Expression noise facilitates the evolution of gene regulation

    Luise Wolf et al.
    In-lab evolution of synthetic promoters has revealed a novel general mechanism for de novo evolution of gene regulation, and highlights the crucial role of expression noise in this process.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    An atomic-resolution view of neofunctionalization in the evolution of apicomplexan lactate dehydrogenases

    Jeffrey I Boucher et al.
    The convergent evolution of unusually strict substrate specificity in apicomplexan LDHs arose by classic neofunctionalization of a duplicated MDH gene via few mutations of large effect.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Stability-mediated epistasis constrains the evolution of an influenza protein

    Lizhi Ian Gong et al.
    Some of the mutations that occur during influenza evolution can only be tolerated in conjunction with other mutations that increase the stability of a viral protein.
    1. Neuroscience

    Rapid stimulus-driven modulation of slow ocular position drifts

    Tatiana Malevich et al.
    Slow, continuous changes in eye position when gaze is fixed, previously believed to be random drifts, are shown to exhibit highly systematic and short-latency response characteristics to visual stimuli.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Quantitative uniqueness of human brain evolution revealed through phylogenetic comparative analysis

    Ian F Miller et al.
    The exceptionally large size of the human brain is the result of accelerating evolution towards larger brains in hominins, but is not the product of neocortical expansion.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Functional trade-offs and environmental variation shaped ancient trajectories in the evolution of dim-light vision

    Gianni M Castiglione, Belinda SW Chang
    The evolution of the light-sensitive visual pigment rhodopsin involved functional tradeoffs that may have sacrificed rod photosensitivity for active-state protein stability to mitigate phototoxicity in tetrapods, but not in fishes.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Natural selection and repeated patterns of molecular evolution following allopatric divergence

    Yibo Dong et al.
    The genomic architecture of allopatric species is a mosaic of many conserved genes and a few adaptive ones, reflecting balance between conservation of ancestral functions and evolution of new features.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Coupling adaptive molecular evolution to phylodynamics using fitness-dependent birth-death models

    David A Rasmussen, Tanja Stadler
    A new model describes how adaptive molecular evolution shapes phylogenetic trees and can be used to estimate the fitness effects of mutations from phylogenies.