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    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Plant Biology

    Evidence for suppression of immunity as a driver for genomic introgressions and host range expansion in races of Albugo candida, a generalist parasite

    Mark McMullan et al.
    Hybridization and introgression blur species boundaries and broaden genetic diversity available for adaptation; and widespread introgression underpins the evolution of races of the generalist pathogen Albugo candida that specialise on different host plant species.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Patterns of within-host genetic diversity in SARS-CoV-2

    Gerry Tonkin-Hill et al.
    Characterisation of within-host diversity of SARS-CoV-2 provides insights into the mutational and selective mechanisms driving its evolution and has important implications for using within-host variation to inform transmission inference efforts.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Recurrent evolution of high virulence in isolated populations of a DNA virus

    Tom Hill, Robert L Unckless
    The same host–virus interactions can evolve multiple times in nature, due to the high effective mutation rate of viruses, and provide interesting systems of study.
    1. Plant Biology

    A fungal member of the Arabidopsis thaliana phyllosphere antagonizes Albugo laibachii via a GH25 lysozyme

    Katharina Eitzen et al.
    A basidiomycete yeast closely related to fungal smuts is an antagonistic microbe in the Arabidopsis leaf phyllosphere that inhibits infection by Albugo laibachii via a GH25 hydrolase with lysozyme activity.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Adaptive evolution of nontransitive fitness in yeast

    Sean W Buskirk et al.
    A series of selective events, each improving fitness relative to an immediate predecessor, can result in organisms that are less fit compared to a distant ancestor.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Reciprocal virulence and resistance polymorphism in the relationship between Toxoplasma gondii and the house mouse

    Jingtao Lilue et al.
    Mechanisms that enable wild mice to survive infection with strains of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite virulent enough to kill laboratory mice offer an explanation for how these parasites have been able to persist in the mouse population.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Parallel evolution of influenza across multiple spatiotemporal scales

    Katherine S Xue et al.
    Influenza evolution within infected hosts recapitulates many evolutionary dynamics observed at the global scale.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Chimeric origins of ochrophytes and haptophytes revealed through an ancient plastid proteome

    Richard G Dorrell et al.
    An in silico reconstruction of a chloroplast that existed hundreds of millions of years ago casts new insights in the evolutionary processes, endosymbioses and chimerism events that shape the origin of plastids.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Molecular dynamics-based refinement and validation for sub-5 Å cryo-electron microscopy maps

    Abhishek Singharoy et al.
    New hybrid structure determination methods leveraging the inherent biophysical properties of a macromolecule through molecular dynamics simulations provide accurate and cost-efficient ways of achieving atomic structures from high resolution cryo-electron density maps.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Extensive and diverse patterns of cell death sculpt neural networks in insects

    Sinziana Pop et al.
    Developmental cell death plays a key role during insect neurogenesis and is increased in specific neuronal populations in flies that have evolved flightlessness.