6,007 results found
  1. Living Science: Words without meaning

    Eve Marder
    Many of the words used by scientists when reviewing manuscripts, job candidates and grant applications – words such as incremental, novelty, mechanism, descriptive and impact – have lost their meaning.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spinal microcircuits comprising dI3 interneurons are necessary for motor functional recovery following spinal cord transection

    Tuan V Bui et al.
    A genetically-defined population of spinal interneurons is reciprocally connected with spinal locomotor circuits and mediates recovery of locomotor function following spinal cord transection.
    1. Neuroscience

    Intrinsically regulated learning is modulated by synaptic dopamine signaling

    Pablo Ripollés et al.
    Dopamine modulates behavioral measures of learning and pleasantness in a learning task guided by intrinsic reward, inducing long-term memory benefits specially in those participants with a high sensitivity to reward.
    1. Neuroscience

    Intrinsic monitoring of learning success facilitates memory encoding via the activation of the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop

    Pablo Ripollés et al.
    Self-motivated learning in the absence of external feedback can recruit the same brain network as reward-driven learning.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopaminergic neurons write and update memories with cell-type-specific rules

    Yoshinori Aso, Gerald M Rubin
    Building on previous work (Aso et al., 2014a; Aso et al., 2014b), cell-type-specific drivers and optogenetics are used to control the local release of dopamine and reveal that distinct learning rules are implemented in parallel memory units.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A cholinergic feedback circuit to regulate striatal population uncertainty and optimize reinforcement learning

    Nicholas T Franklin, Michael J Frank
    Computational modeling suggests that feedback between striatal cholinergic neurons and spiny neurons dynamically adjusts learning rates to optimize behavior in a variable world.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Absence of TGFβ signaling in retinal microglia induces retinal degeneration and exacerbates choroidal neovascularization

    Wenxin Ma et al.
    TGFβ signaling to retinal microglia is central to the regulation of neuroinflammatory responses relevant to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the developed world.
    1. Neuroscience

    Homeostatic reinforcement learning for integrating reward collection and physiological stability

    Mehdi Keramati, Boris Gutkin
    A mathematical model built around the assumption that the desire to maintain internal homeostasis drives the behavior of animals, by affecting their learning processes, can explain many real-world behaviors, including some that might otherwise appear irrational.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Single molecule mechanics resolves the earliest events in force generation by cardiac myosin

    Michael S Woody et al.
    Cardiac myosin converts energy from ATP into mechanical work by transitioning from a short-lived force-bearing state, to a post working stroke state before the release of inorganic phosphate.
    1. Neuroscience

    Computational mechanisms of curiosity and goal-directed exploration

    Philipp Schwartenbeck et al.
    Distinct computational levels of uncertainty compel agents to gain information about hidden states in the world (‘active inference’) or optimise their ‘world model’ as such (‘active learning’).

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